ABSTRACT: Histology expression in asthma show inflammatory processes and airway structural changes. Treatment development in asthma needs appropriate animal models but most animal models use short term allergen exposure. The aim of this research was to create develop allergic mouse model with allergic inflammation and structural changes histology expression. Eight female BALB/c mice, 6-12 weeks old, 80-100 grams were divided into two groups. The first group were exposed to a normal saline solution where the second group received ovalbumin. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin on day 0 and 14 and challenged by nebulization of 1% ovalbumin three times weekly for 6 weeks. Twenty four hours after final exposure, the mice were sacrificed by lethal cardiac puncture. The level of total IgE in serum were measured by ELISA and IL-4 receptor expression were examinated by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric analysis was performed to count inflammatory cells, eosinophil, goblet cells, epithel and smooth muscle thickness. Differences between the control and exposed mice were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were a significant differences in total IgE serum and expression IL-4 receptor between the two groups (P < 0,05). The morphometric analyzing also demonstrated significant differences between these two groups (P < 0,05). Chronic ovalbumin exposure through inhalation produced allergic inflammation and airway structural changes.
Keywords: allergic inflammation, mouse models, chronic exposure, ovalbumin


ABSTRACT: Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) technique is gaining increasing popularity in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions because it offers some advantages such as rapid , easy , with minimal complications, but its applicability in diagnosis of bone tumors however has some limitations. This research was aimed to explore the roles of FNAB and its accuracy as the preoperative diagnostic method compared to histopathology examination from open biopsy or operation as a gold standard. Research design was descriptive study and diagnostic test from cases of bone tumors which were aspirated over a period of threeyears in Anatomic Pathology Laboratory of Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang. The data was collected with cross sectional method. Of the 106 patients who were subjected to FNAB, 22 cases were diagnosed as benign bone tumor,49 were primary malignant bone tumor,24 were metastatic malignant bone tumor,1 cases was suspicious malignant tumor, 5 cases were non neoplastic lesions, and 5 cases were inadequate/ inconclusive for diagnosis. Of the 16 cases which was analized with diagnostic test, sensitivity of FNAB as preoperative diagnostic method was 100 %, specificity was 90,91%, positive predictive value was 83,33 % and negative predictive values was 100 % . Overall, diagnostic accuracy of FNAB was 93,75 %.It can be concluded that FNAB has important roles to differentiate neoplasm or non neoplasm lesion, benign or malignant tumor and primary or metastatic malignant bone tumor. FNAB represented as a technique having high accuracy for preoperative diagnostic method of bone tumor.
Keyword: FNAB, Preoperative diagnosis, Bone Tumor

Outer Membrane Protein 49,4 KDA dari Porphyromonas Gingivalis Merupakan Protein Hemaglutinin dan Adhesin Terhadap Netrofil

ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is caused mostly by P. gingivalis and it is related to acute coronary syndrome. P. gingivalis readily invades into blood circulation and potentially induces. Collagenolytic activity of neutrophil which result in collagen vascular degradation lead to atherosclerotic plague rupture (APR). APR is responsible for occurring fatal cardiovascular events such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These information brought out notion concerning the adhesion interaction of P. gingivalis with neutrophil. The aim of this study was to assess adhesion molecule of P. gingivalis outer membrane protein (OMP) by partial characterization took in hemagglutination assay using mice erythrocytes, adhesion inhibition assay by gradual concentration of adhesion blocked in neutrophil, immunologic assay using Western-blotting and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that 49,4 kDa P.gingivalis OMP can agglutinate mice erythrocytes and adherence to netrophil Increase concentration of OMP P. gingivalis 49,4 kDa reduce adhesion process to netrophil This protein was recognized by the polyclonal antibody of 49,4 kDa adhesion molecule. It can be concluded that P gingivalis outer membrane protein is a hemagglutinin and an adhesion molecule to netrophil
Keywords : 49,4 kDa P. gingivalis OMP, neutrophil, hemagglutination, adhesin

Identifikasi Forensik Berdasarkan Pemeriksaan Primer dan Sekunder Sebagai Penentu Identitas Korban pada Dua Kasus Bencana Massal

ABSTRACT: The main purposes of identification process in mass disaster is to find the corpses identity in order to give it back to their family by doing some identification methods such as primer identification which must do at the first time because they have highly and accurate result as the identifiers. There are many differences between the burned corpses on the the tragedy of the burning of Garuda Airlines and the drowned corpses on the tragedy of the sinking of Senopati Nusantara ship , many difference characteristic that influence the process of forensic identification. In the burned corpses, teeths are still intact and relatives still could be examined than another primery identifiers. It makes difference priority between one to another cases. So, from the two different cases, we can choose the different primer identifiers as the priority depend on the condition of the dead bodies related to the accident in order to make the right identity for giving back to the relatives.
Keyword: Primary Identification, dental records, secondary identification
Penulis: Eriko Prawestiningtyas, Agus Mochammad Algozi

Aromaterapi Bunga Lavender Memperbaiki Kualitas Tidur pada Lansia

ABSTRACT: Sleep is a basic human need, characterized by minimal physical activity, change in physiological process of the body and decrease respon from external stimulus. Most of the elderly have high risk to suffer sleep problem because of some factors. Aromatherapy is a therapy using essential oil which produces comfortable effect, more steady emotion and feeling, calmer thought and feeling. This research was aimed to identify the effectivity of Lavender (Lavendula L) Aromatherapy in improving quality of sleep of the elderly in Panti Werdha Malang. A quasi experiment study was implemented with randomized control group pretest posttest using 18 subjects divided into two groups.and treatment. The sleep quality was measured by interview developed based on PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). The data were then analyzed using Wilcoxon test and MannWhitney test. A significant improvement of sleep quality score was identified in treatment group (3,89, p= 0,07) but not in the control group (0,78;p=0,317). These improvement is significantly different between the two groups (p=.0,001). It can be concluded that Lavender aromatherapy is significantly improve the quality of sleep in elderly people
Keyword: Lavander (Lavendula L ), aromatherapy, quality of sleep, elderly

Induksi Meningkatkan Proporsi Endotelin-1 pada Aorta Mencit yang Diinduksi Diet Aterogenik Porphyromonas gingivalis

ABSTRACT: One of the risk factor of atherosclerosis is associated with activation of the inflammatory process in infection, as evidence by systemic elevations of molecules such as MCP-1,PAI-1 and ET-1. Recent evidence suggests that infectious agents, including those that cause periodontal disease, may also important role in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine if recurrent intravenous injections with P. gingivalis for 14 weeks promotes endothelial smooth muscle ET-1 proportion in aortic mice. Twenty four weeks old mice (n=6 per group for each time point) were divided in two groups, there were normal diet and atherogenic diet,each of them were inoculated intravenously with live P. gingivalis (10 cell/50µl PBS) injections or vehicle (50µl PBS) once per week for 14 weeks. The Immunohistochemistry for aortic ET-1 proportion were performed. The result of RAK with 3 interaction and Tukey test using SPSS 14 for windows showed that at 14 weeks, theET-1 proportion in aortic endothelial cell was higher than in aortic smooth muscle cell. Recurrent P. gingivalis bacteremia in normodiet and atherodiet was proportion of ET-1 in aortic endothelial cell was higher than in aortic smooth muscle cell. In can be concluded that Induction of P. gingivalis increase proportion of aortic's ET-1 in atherodiet mice.
Abstrak: P gingivalis, ET-1,Atherogenic diet


ABSTRACT: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperinsulinemia and hyperglicemia. Soy bean Milk ishigh nutrient drink, especially its protein contain. Several researches demonstrated that soy bean proteindecrease plasma insulin and blood glucose level. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of soy beanmilk in reducing insulin resistance of rat T2DM Model. This experimental study used pre and post test controlgroup design. Male Rattus norvegicus wistar strain 8 week old were used as animal model. T2DM rats wereconstructed by giving high fat diet and continue with injection of low dose of streptozotocin. Rats were dividedinto 7 groups (1) Negative control group (2) Positive control group (T2DM rat without soy bean milk) (3) T2DMrat that treated with genistein 15 g/kgBW (4) T2DM rat that treated with soy bean milk 10 ml/kgBW/day (5)DMT2 rat that treated with soy bean milk 30 ml/kgBW/day (6) T2DM rat that treated with soy bean milk 60ml/kgBW/day and (7) T2DM rat that treated with soy bean milk 90 ml/kgBW/day. Soy bean milk was administrated for 15 days. Data were analyze using One way ANOVA, than continue with Tukey test by SPSS method 13 Version. The result showed that there were a significant effect of soy bean milk in decreasing glucose serum level (p=0.02) and insulin plasma level (p=0.00). A High increasing of glucose serum level and insulin plasma level occur when rat of DMT2 model was given soy bean milk 90 ml/kgBW/d.
Keyword: T2DM, Insulin resistant, soybean milk

Analisis Faktor–Faktor Risiko Kejadian Filariasis

Abstrak: According to WHO report 2001 filariasis, commonly  known as elephantiasis is one of communicable disease which still becomes a public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in rural areas. Filariasis disease can cause permanent deformity,  i.e. swollen  legs, arms and genital  regardless of sexes. Further  impact of such a condition  is  that  the sufferers cannot work normally and  depend  their  lives  to others. Filariasis disease brings great  social,  cultural,  economic  and  psychological  impact. Out  of  five  districts  in  the  province  of Gorontalo, District of Bonebolango shows the highest endemic. The report shows that out of 326 people whose blood has been examined, 105 turn out to be positive (mf rate=34.4%). They are concentrated at one sub district, i.e. sub district of Boneraya (survey 2002), exceeding endemic borderline of an area with mf rate <1% which becomes a threat to economic stability of the area. WHO declares the Global Goal of Elimination of Lympathic Filariasis as a Public Health Problem by 2020, and Indonesia makes a follow up by determining filariasis elimination as a priority program  of  communicable  disease  eradication. Environmental,  behavioral  and  social  cultural  factors  are  risk factors which minimize  prevalence of  filariasis.
Objective: To identify risk factors related to cases of filarisis at District of Bonebolango, Province of Gorontalo.
Method:  The  study was  observational with  case  control  design. Odds Ratio  (OR) was  used  to  find  out  risk factor estimation of filariasis prevalence.  Interview was conducted  to respondents with positive microfilaria and equal control. Total samples were as many as 140 respondents. Data analysis used Chi Square and logistic regression.
Result: The result of univariable and bivariable analysis showed that risk factors related to filariasis prevalence were behavioral factors, i.e. use of mosquito net (OR=11, 5), use of ventilation wire screen (OR=2.078), use of long  sleeves  (OR=0,  014),  knowledge  (OR=2,  004)  and  environmental  (OR=2,  215) However,  the  result  of multivariable analysis  showed  that  the  risk  factors were behavioral with  such as use of mosquito net  (OR=9, 568), use of long sleeves (OR=2, 870), knowledge (OR=2, 485) and environmental (OR=3.563)
Conclusion: Behavioral  (do  not  used  of mosquito  net  and  do  not  used  long  sleeves), Social  cultural  (low knowledge)  and  environmental  factors were  risk  factors  of  filariasis.
Keywords: behavioral, social cultural, environmental,  risk of  filariasis, case control

Faktor Risiko Penularan Malaria Vivak

Abstrak: Malaria in Indonesia is one of the important health cases, in particular outer part of Java-Bali. South Bengkulu Regency is one of the transmigration areas outer Java and Bali which is the endemic area toward malaria disease. From 34 communities’ health centers which exist, 19 community health centre are stated as the endemic are diseases in South Bengkulu Regency during last five years  revealed the tendency of increasing the case annually. Up to now the eliminating of malaria in South Bengkulu Regency was emphasized on the medical aspect to cure the parasite and the management of vectors. Meanwhile the behavioral aspect had not got appropriate attention as well.
Method and Result: This research was the observational by  design of case control. The sample was gained from the Public Hospital Manna, Community Health Centre M.Thaha, and Community Health Centre Kedurang. It comprised from 36  cased and 72 controls. Data analysis was conducted descriptively by using table of frequencies distribution and analytically to know the relation between two variables by cross tabulation then was tested by using 2x2 table by Epi Info Program to know the amount of Odds Ratio (OR) and also see which variable having biggest risk to support the contamination of disease by using logistic linier. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 10.0.
Conclusion: Based on the result of this research, it could concluded that : 1) there was every significant relation between the distance of field to the house toward the incident of malaria (p=000) , 2) there was not present relation between the distance of rice field with the incident of malaria(p=0,133), 3) there was not present very significant relation between the habits to use mosquito net with the incident of malaria (p=0,000), 4) there was not present a relation between the usage of burnt mosquito poison with the incident of malaria (p=0,887), 5) there was not present significant relation between the habit to go outside in the night with the incident of malaria (p=0,002).
Keywords: distance of the field, distance ofricefield, mosquito net, burnt mosquito poison, go outside in the night, malaria

Proporsi Ibu Hamil Risiko Tinggi yang Dirujuk pada Daerah Tertinggal

Abstrak: This study was carried out to know scope primary health care especially for proportion of pregnant with high risk which were reference service. After five years be in effect decentralization include health department, this study was from July to September 2006 in under develop areas as location of study.
Method: The study design using secondary data by “data extraction” or observation study with “survey method” and data processing using by Microsoft Excel for Windows and descriptive statistical analysis. This study will be measure for proportion of pregnant with high risk which were reference service in under develops area.
Result: This study will be preparation health information about proportion of pregnant with high risk which reference services in were under develop area
Conclusion: The means of under develop area were not the target of indicators minimal health service standard yet reached.
Keywords: pregnant with high risk reference
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