Lead poisoning and cystatin-C in children

Abstract: Background Lead pollution is a global problem both in developed and developing countries. Lead poisoning is associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). Serum cystatin-C is a more precise test of GFR than serum creatinine level, as serum cystatin-C levels rise earlier than serum creatinine, when GFR decreases. Objective To assess for a possible correlation between lead poisoning and cystatin-C levels in children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children aged 6-11 years with a history of lead poisoning from elementary schools in Talawaan District, North Minahasa Regency from July to October 2013. Cystatin-C and blood lead levels (BLL) were measured in all subjects. Spearman’s rho test was used to analyze a potential correlation between BLL and cystatin-C level. Results This study included 41 children, comprising 21 boys and 20 girls. Their median age was 8.50 (range 6.8-10.7) years. Elevated levels of cystatin-C did not exceed normal values, however, we found a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C (r=0.419, P=0.006). Conclusion There is a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C level in children with lead poisoning. Regular monitoring of BLL, medical intervention, and an epidemiological study to help find the sources of contamination are needed for children with lead poisoning.
Keywords: lead poisoning; cystatin-C, AKI; children
Author: Yuri, Praisilia Riani Najoan, Stefanus Gunawan, Adrian Umboh
Journal Code: jpkedokterangg150263